Effect Of Cigarette Smoking On Periodontal Health Status In Nepalese Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

Bhageshwar Dhami, Prabhat Shrestha, Manoj Humagain


BackgroundSmoking is the major risk factor in the prevalence, extent and severity of periodontal diseases. Tobacco smoking, mostly in the form of cigarette smoking, is recognized as the most important environmental risk factor in periodontitis.

Aim and objectivesThe aims of the study were to evaluate the periodontal health status among cigarette smokers and non cigarette smokers and to assess effect of smoking on periodontal health with the duration of smoking.

Materials and MethodsThe study included 300 subjects (101 cigarette smokers and 199 non smokers) aged 15-74 years. The subjects were randomly selected. Community Periodontal Index (CPI) scores was recorded for each patient. Chi Square test was applied for comparing the associations. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant.

ResultsPeriodontal condition as assessed by CPI score showed that there was statistically significant difference in the findings between cigarette smokers and non-smokers. The results also showed that those who smoked for lesser duration of time had less periodontal destruction than the subjects who smoked for longer duration

ConclusionsThe current study shows that smoking is one of the major environmental factors associated with accelerated periodontal destruction. It was found that cigarette smoking was associated with lesser gingival bleeding and deeper pockets as compared to non-smokers.


Community periodontal index, periodontal disease, smoking

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