Oral habits and its related malocclusion among 3-12 years rural and urban school children: An OPD Survey

Parul Singhal, Ritu Namdev, Samir Dutta, Kamal Malhotra


Aim: This study evaluated the prevalence of oral habits, effects of socio-demographic variables on prevalence and their association with malocclusion.
Design: A total of 1813 students were randomly selected from rural and urban schools of Kurukshetra district of Haryana. They were examined clinically and a specifically designed proforma was filled to assess the prevalence of habits and the resultant malocclusion. The tabulated data was statistically analysed using chi square test at a significance level of 5%.

Results: Of 1813 children, males were 1052 (58.03%) and females were 761 (41.97%). A total of 307(16.93%) children had oral habits with females having higher prevalence in comparison to the males (p<0.05). Tongue thrusting was commonest habit (8.38%) followed by thumb sucking (2.64%), bruxism (2.09%), mouth breathing (1.99%), nail biting (0.99%) and lip biting (0.84%). Maxillary proclination and open bite were significantly associated with tongue thrusting and thumb sucking habits (p<0.05) whereas posterior crossbite with thumb sucking (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Tongue thrusting was the most prevalent habit (8.38%) and lip biting the least (0.84%). A statistically significant correlation was found between oral habits and malocclusion which increased with increase in age of children. 


habits, malocclusion, open bite, tongue thrusting

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